the writings of juan almendares on the coup d'etat
The Guaymuras Dialogue, Honduras, and the armor-plated elections - "The scapegoat syndrome"
By Juan Almendares
To penetrate Honduras in the political abyss, it’s essential to analyze the Guaymuras Dialogue, Tegucigalpa/San Jose Accord for national reconciliation and strengthening of democracy, signed on the 30th of October, 2009 by representatives of the de facto Government and of the legitimate President of Honduras, Manuel Zelaya Rosales.
The analysis requires establishing a connection between the text, the context, the history, and strategies of local and international political hegemony in the ethical and liberational conception of life.
These are [conceptual] keys for philosophical, political, and ethical analysis of the above-mentioned Accord: Dialogue, Lawful State, Constitution, Democracy, and National Reconciliation.
The invitation to dialogue, the [sense of] impunity, and the violation of human rights have been the fundamental traits of the military coup.
In the name of the Lawful State, the Constitution, Democracy, and [with] the invocation of God for the religious hierarchies, the military coup absolves its [own] sins and continues exempt from punishment under the rule of law and the proposal of National Reconciliation.
The lawful state is characterized by the supremacy of the law over the human being. The ethical, gender, ethnic, and social class values are detached [from the individual in the application of the law]. The dominant forces have fossilized, petrified, and sanctified the Constitution. Their watchwords are “God is Honduran!”, “God bless Honduras!”, “Long Live Honduras!”, and “Long live democracy!” They fail to point out those men or women who have been assassinated, [subjected to] femicide, tortured, and politically persecuted as a result of the military coup.
Three strategies have characterized the coup: [first,] guerrilla warfare, with “free and armor-plated elections” to produce Wasting Syndrome and chronic exhaustion of the adversary until obtaining his complete defeat.
The second strategy is to discredit, infiltrate, divide, and demonize the oppositional forces united in the National Resistance against the Military Coup, accusing them of being vandals, anarchists, supporters of Hugo Chavez, communists, enemies of democracy, [and] subversives to create conditions and gestate more human rights violations and promote a civil war.
The third strategy is the Scapegoat Syndrome, which consists of placing the responsibility for all the evils; misfortunes; violations of the law, the Constitution, [and] agreements; and bad government on one individual, namely on President Zelaya. He has been treated in a cruel and degrading manner by a Nero-like media circus; by means of calumnies, lies, accusations of violating the Constitution, [and] stigmatization; and with deprivation of his liberty under psychological torture and exposure to gases, toxic substances, and infernal noises. Not only he, but also his family and companions in the Brazilian Embassy [have been so treated.]
The cruelty and infamy of the spokesmen of the de facto regime reached such a degree that they blamed the collapse of the Guaymuras Accord on Zelaya Rosales. This unequal and immoral agreement, however, is the product of military domination [both] local [and] international, and of multinational financial capital which is reflected in the installation and maintenance of military bases in Honduras, Colombia, and Panama, whose political strategy is to cause new military coups in Latin America and to threaten the peace of the continent.
The intention of the de facto Government is to remain in power, [and] to destroy the Resistance through infiltration, division, terror, and torture. In the face of this situation—Are armor-plated elections legitimate, transparent, and legal?—neither President Zelaya nor the Resistance have moral or legal responsibility for what may happen before, during, and after the elections.
The resistance wisely based itself on the principle of non-violence. The elections are a path to a hell of injustice in Honduras in the politico-military abyss. The principal tasks of the resistance are to strengthen the unity of all forces, respecting the differences; to work together for the Constitutional Convention, the transformation of the essence of the Constitution of the Republic of Honduras; and to achieve democratization of the country, peace, and justice.
The future heralds greater obstacles if the coup regime consolidates. We need to learn the lessons of history, of the years of war, with thousands of dead and disabled, and millions of Central American refugees. The military-industrial complex and financial capital nevertheless continue promoting the business of war at the expense of the blood our peoples.
It is estimated [that] in Honduras [there are] 16,000 police, 14,000 members of the armed services, 60,000 private security guards, a hundred or so assassins, and an unknown quantity of informers. In the base at Palmerola, [there are] 1,500 US soldiers, whose number can be increased by thousands in the course of hours. The approximate total is 90,000 armed individuals whose leaders have training from the School of the Americas and where the performance of the US forces is invisible.
The mutual and fraternal love between the organizations of the resistance, the confidence in its directors, [and] the strategy of non-violence are essential to embrace the hope of the new dawn of peace, social and climactic justice, [and] respect to the human rights of our people, of all the people of Latin America, and of all human beings on the planet.
Tegucigalpa, November 2009
They shall never kill our dreams of love and freedom!
By Juan Almendares
As a result of the 21st century military coup, in our small homeland -military occupied by the United States of America - we have witnessed the local and global strength of the artistic and intellectual movement of resistance against this coup that attempts against life and culture: the nature of this movement is more collective, unitary and strongly rooted in the struggle for the collapse of the walls of silence and the oppression of the peoples.
The different forms of aesthetic expression have enriched the vision, the building of dreams of hope by creatively innovating the communication of the right, proper, brave message with all the moral and spiritual strength of our people. A people that is subjugated by cultural alienation, the ruling class, the classist authorities of the theology of the oppressors and the military and police terror.
The artistic and intellectual talent have been built on the basis of being 'compañero' of the social awareness of the people; the artist and the intellectual are the people and the people mobilized is art, the theory and practice of the liberating tranformation of the planet's humanity. Every fast, march of resistance against the military coup, with its sweat drips, blood shed, the courage of its tears, its cry for freedom, the humor, the irony of its slogans is also an aesthetic manifestation of the accummulated rebelliousness over centuries of suffering caused by the historic terrorist trauma against life, the dignity of our people and of all the peoples of Latin America.
The military coup that came as a result of the unity of the ruling class allied with the international financial capital of the military industry has led to the unity of the people, which has taken the real path of social, political organization to find its own identity. They have defended history and taken its own decisions through the process of mobilizing and transforming social awareness. This is reflected in the future Constituent Assembly, where the real grassroots are represented, to amend the country's constitution so that the people becomes its own leader and true ruler.
Each photograph, each caricature, painting, graffitti, verse, essay, thought, song, music, dance, play, captures the pain to the tanks, the bayonets and the toxic gases that injure and kill the teachers, the indigenous, the garifunas, the workers, the peasants, feminists, students, transexuals, lesbians, journalists and lawyers of the resistance and the human rights advocates.
The intellectual and material authors of the military coup remind us of the Catholic Inquisition, of the hordes of Hitler, of Franco's and Mussolini's fascism. They are the racists who, from the National Congress and the de facto government have expressed their racist hatred against the lenca, garifuna and misquito indigenous. Their clearest racist arrogance was the message against President Obama.
Its anti-semitic record, its sexual and homophic prejudice is well known. In the resistance against the military coup there are is neither religious nor ethnical prejudice. Its essence is the non violence, so it cannot be described as anti-catholic, anti-arabic or anti-semitic, anti-US or anti-European.
The soul of the resistance is the awakening of hope, which has discovered that the military coup is a coup that tortures an entire people and that announces new coups in Latin America. The resistance is the poetic force of our continent; it rejects civil war promoted by the coup perpetrators that represent the weapon business of the oppressing classes and the transnational corporations that own the historic accummulation of capital.
We welcome the national and international solidarity of all ethnic groups, cultures, religions and workers, peasants, students, feminists, environmental organizations; the international media and human rights advocates in order to defeat the 21st century fascism represented in body and spirit by the military coup against an unarmed, immolated and tortured people.
We hereby make a call for global awareness so that the decision of the resistance to be part of the bloodiest dialogue in the history of Honduras is taken into account. The resistance has named its delegates and has the strong conviction of defending its principles and of struggling for the reinstatement of the legitimate President of Honduras, Manuel Zelaya Rosales, who, together with his family and supporters in the Brazilian Embassy, have been tortured, exposed to toxic gases and subjected to police and military terrorism. The resistance has fought for the release of Agustina Flores and all the political prisoners and demands justice so that the crimes against humanity and the murder and torture of leaders do not go unpunished.
The Constituent Assembly is always present in the heart of the resistance, its bases and leaders, as well as the free speech of the solidary media and those who have been subjected to persecution, closure or censorship like Radio Globo, Cholusat Sur, Canal 11, Radio Progreso, El Libertador and Diario Tiempo. We shall all condemn the business of war, torture and walk together towards a new world of peace, justice and respect for human rights and for the peoples' rights around the world.
It has been centuries of torture and terrorism; centuries of exploitation and plunder of Mother Earth, centuries of racism, slavery and submission. Centuries of accummulation of richness at the expense of anemia, poverty and climate injustice. It has been centuries of treason and corruption of the oligarchy, the State's parasitical bourgeoisie and its guardians trained at the metropolis to subjugate and murder its own people. It has been centuries of armed, ideological and religious alliance to oppress and make invisible the strength and to silence the voice of the peoples. It has been centuries of atrophying the minds of children through poverty, violence and alienating education.
Despite the infamy and the historic terrorism, never again will they be able to kill the dreams of love and freedom of our peoples of Latin America!
the world's biggest silence
To silence is to betray the principle of defending human and planetary life and love. It is being accomplice of crimes against humanity, torture and human rights abuses. The de facto government declared a state of emergency was declared for 45 days, it suspended almost all civil liberties consecrated in the Constitution. It gave Brazil a 10-day ultimatum for President Zelaya to leave the Brazilian embassy or else the military would break into the diplomatic building. Under this decree, there will barely be any elections in November of 2009 and the de facto government has absolute power to violate human rights in the name of peace, dialogue - without letting the people talk-, democracy and "God bless Honduras".
We condemn the murder of PINU's candidate for the House of Representatives, Marco Antonio Canales Villatoro (40), who accordingo to police sources "died in a private hospital of the Honduran capital after two men shot him from a motorcycle while he was getting out of church, the spokesperson of the National Police, Orlin Cerrato, told the local press. Cerrato said that, according to preliminary investigations by the National Bureau of Criminal Investigation (DNIC), the murder is "apparently" not related with the political crisis the country is going through since the ousting of Manuel Zelaya last June 28, who returned to the country on Monday.
Therefore, the accusation that he was murdered by the Resistance to the Military Coup is false. The struggle methods of the resistance are "non violent".
Wendy Ávila, a law student, died of a severe bronchospasm as a result of being exposed to toxic gases used against the Brazilian Embassy and the demonstrators.
Radio Globo was militarized and closed down today and the free speech of Television Cholusat Sur was lifted. We do not know the situation of the journalists and the social communicators. In any case we express our solidarity with them and we demand the respect for their lives and for human rights. According to the decree, to be passed or rejected by the National Congress, all media is banned from expressing opinions against the de facto regime, thus violating the free speech of all Hondurans that oppose the current state of affairs. The Honduran people is hereby invited to not let itself be provoked with violence, to have historic patience, which does not mean conformism but, quite on the contrary to lift the moral at these painful times of great courage.
We should avoid a civil war, that is what the ones who have the weapons and the ones in power want. The people is wise and the leader, and it knows that non violence will be our strength and hope for true peace, justice and respect for human rights.
Tegucigalpa, September 27, 2009
We should defend health, human life and life on Earth
In my capacity as doctor, as Former Dean of the School of Medical Sciences and Former President of the UNAH, I hereby address my colleagues, workers and students in the health sector because the creation of health care groups or voluntary peoples and international humanitarian organizations are urgently needed in the peripheral and downtown communities of Tegucigalpa , Comayagüela , San Pedro Sula, and other communities nation wide, to assist the victims and survivors of torture, bullet impacts, tear gas spraying as a result of the abuses increased on September 23, 2009, by the police and military foces.
The victims cannot move in the hospitals where the military and police forces are, some dressed in civilian clothes are threatening the traumatized people.
I appeal to the humanitarian nature of the authorities of the Honduras National Autonomous University, the students, professors and the trade union and the different schools: medicine, nursing, psychology, pharmacy and social work, as well as the members of the Association of MDs of Honduras, School of Nurses, Association of Psychologists, Pharmaceutical Chemists, Social Workers Association, Trade Union of Medical Workers, union of nurses, to organize interdisciplinary health teams.
Now is the time to put the knowledge and ethical and moral principles into practice, with our Honduran brothers and sisters. The tear gases and the pepper gases and the bullets kill and cause breathing problems, heart problems, allergies, abortion, this is no more about crushing a demonstration but about attacking kids, elderly people and pregnant women in their own homes.
The UNAH and its corresponding health areas could coordinate actions with the Associations of Professionals aimed at saving lives, showing them our moral commitment to the people with no race, political or religious discrimination. Let's advocate for love to human and global life.
Tegucigalpa, September 24, 2009
Stop the use of chemical weapons by military forces
The occupants of the Brazilian Embassy accompanying President Manuel Zelaya Rosales, wife and family, as well as people in communities and protestors are being attacked with chemical weapons launched from helicopters or aircraft; and sophisticated sonic and electromagnetic radiation devices that produce severe diarrhoea, vomiting, nosebleeds and gastrointestinal disorders.
The clinical symptoms manifested are consistent with the use of toxic substances such as: pesticides, chemical compounds and gases, radioactive substances like radioactive cesium and toxic mushrooms.
We are urgently appealing for an international medical mission and to the UN World Health Organization (WHO; this is an irregular war against the people of Honduras. The armed forces have not allowed access to the Brazilian Embassy for doctors or the International Red Cross; violating all treaties and international conventions on health, respect for human rights
Please make this urgent call on behalf of life and love of humanity.
Tegucigalpa September 24, 2009
Honduras: from repression to resistance
Latin America’s second political and military coup d’état of the 21st century took place in the small and largely invisible ‘Banana Republic’ of Honduras in June 2009.
The coup was a direct result of efforts by de facto local powers to topple President Manuel Zelaya’s democratically elected government. These local powers comprise the country’s traditional political and economic elites and their ideological proponents in the judiciary, church and national media. There is undoubtedly an international component too; Honduras is a critical strategic ally of the United States and home to one of the largest US military bases in the hemisphere. Indeed, it is impossible that this coup could have happened without the prior knowledge of the US government.
All these main forces have strong economic and political ties; sharing a common interest in Honduras’s major economic sectors (banana, tobacco, mining and biofuels) and a common enemy in Honduras’s poor majority. This political alliance has also forged its own discourse about the coup, one that emphasises its legality, as well as the democratic credentials of the coup perpetrators.
Nevertheless, this alliance faces serious resistance from within Honduras. Social and popular movements, including environmentalists, human rights defenders, writers, artists, church communities, feminists, lesbians, gays, and even some fractions of the Liberal Party, have formed the ‘National Resistance Front against the Coup’. This resistance movement also includes Madre Tierra / Friends of the Earth Honduras, the organisation that I chair.
For non-governmental organisations like Madre Tierra, the coup represents the consolidation of historical exploitation - led by the country’s long-standing oligarchy that controls approximately 80 per cent of Honduran wealth - and a worsening of the situation for the poorest and most vulnerable people in Honduras. This ongoing plunder includes expelling impoverished peasants, settlers and indigenous peoples from their lands and polluting land and water; all actions that constitute the flagrant violation of individual, collective and environmental rights.
As a result of the coup, Madre Tierra has received the national and international support and solidarity from other social movements, especially their sister organisations in Friends of the Earth International and Friends of the Earth Latin America, Via Campesina, and Food Sovereignty and Agrarian Reform (SARA). For many of these organisations, the coup brings back the phantom of the 1980s dictatorial regimes of Latin America, and gives the green light to similar anti-democratic practices in the region - again putting at risk the most vulnerable people of Latin America.
To avoid that, the resistance movement is working to recognise the electoral process, which will only come with the return of the ousted president, constitutional order and the unconditional respect for human rights in the country. Additionally, it calls for a Constituent Assembly to revise the Honduran constitution through the participation of social actors that truly represent the Honduran people and their interests.
The main principle of the National Resistance Front against the Coup is the principle of non-violence. On the other side, the coup’s supporters systematically use persecution, torture, arbitrary detentions, murder of social leaders and violence against the civilian population.
Yet despite this widespread resistance, the fate of Honduras largely rests on developments outside the country. The entire international community, including the Organisation of American States (OAS), the United Nations and numerous international human rights organisations, has condemned the coup but the US has taken almost two months to take any significant measures to pressure the de facto regime. Even contradicting its own legislation, which under a coup d’état compels the country to suspend diplomatic, economic, and military relations.
On the role of the US, some questions need to be posed: why has Washington contributed to prolong the new, illegal regime? Why have the negotiations been transferred from an international organisation to Rica Oscar Arias, the president of Costa Rica, under Hilary Clinton’s instructions, regardless of the unanimous decision against the coup from the OAS and US?
Who authorised those decisions and what kind of legal power does Hilary Clinton have? Why is the United Nations, which condemned the coup d’état, helping the de facto regime in the forthcoming electoral process? Is it ethical to legitimate an electoral process that is being implemented by the new, illegal regime?
The only way to resolve the current situation in Honduras is to restore full constitutional order - including the return of President Zelaya. Our people want peace and justice and our hope is to mobilise people to support non-violent actions. We hope to end the business of war, the hunger and poverty, which come as consequence of a structural and hegemonic violence.
Tegucigalpa, September 24, 2009
The Biggest Embrace in History
On September 15 2009 millions of Hondurans took to the streets to protest against the unelected government that came to power in a coup this July. Here Juan Alemendares, director of Friends of the Earth Honduras, documents the history of his country and wonders whether Hondurans will ever be free to determine their own future.
“Have you ever been inside an empty stadium? Try it sometime. Stand in the middle of the field and listen. There is nothing emptier than an empty stadium. There is nothing more silent than the stands with nobody in them”.
For the last five centuries the West and the hegemonic power of multinational colonization have been stealing the essence of life and the aroma of our Honduran lands. They were violent centuries, with massacres of the first peoples. Centuries of immolation and lies, in the name of the cross, “the idea of civilization” and weapons. Centuries antagonistic to the dreams of Lempira, Morazán, Bolívar, Valle and Martí. Centuries of resistance in historic unity by the peoples of Our America.
We were prisoners in the mining and banana enclaves. Wealth at the expense of hunger and misery. The forests were cut down. The mahogany was used to beautify the mansions in Europe, and adorn the doors of the White House in Washington. Agribusiness, agri-combustibles and the loss of alimentary sovereignty increased the treasures of Wall Street, and international financial capital. Honduras was born during the decadence of the old world and the emergence of the Monroe Doctrine and Manifest Destiny. Invaded by marines and modern pirates, who sang in unison the chorus “In God We Trust” - in God and in the World Bank.
At the beginning of the second half of the 20th century, the 1954 banana workers' strike took place. The army, guardians of the banana plantations, controlled by the Pentagon and the CIA, put an end to the workers' movement and participated in the overthrow of the government of Jacobo Árbenz in Guatemala.
In the 80s there is a military occupation of Honduras. The principal strategist, John Dimitri Negroponte, strengthened the National Security Doctrine. The disciples of the School of the Americas put into practice the torture and physical disappearance of people with the acquiescence of the state judicial apparatus.
Since 1956 until the present century, there have been: seven military coups, signifying seven plagues against national progress. The stigmas: “Banana Republic”, “Country for Rent” have injured the national soul. They are damned names that mask a history of crime, corruption and the negation of a people that have always struggled for liberation.
At the end of the 20th century we were hit by Hurricane Mitch; made worse by transnational financial capital that bribes the powers that be, sells territory to the mining companies, textile sweatshops, banana plantations, energy plants, that increase climatic injustice and social poverty.
Over all these centuries, of coups, blows, *paquetazos and trancazos*(economic packages and beatings), to the mother and fatherland, they have accumulated and assimilated their own experiences and those of other peoples. Unity is constructed in the honey of practice of the social being and in the hell of the condemned of mother earth.
We learn to reject the lies against the people and governments of Cuba, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina, Venezuela, El Salvador, Nicaragua and the very government of Honduras presided over by Manuel Zelaya; because there is no bigger truth than the generous testimonies of unconditional solidarity in health, education, economy and transport; that we have received from these sister nations.
The Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) is the most concrete expression of human cooperation and fraternity in the face of the unequal trade agreements with the United States and Europe.
In the first decade of the 21st century, June 28th of 2009; the first political, economic and military coup in Latin America takes place, carried out by an armed, religious, political, ideological and media alliance of local powers in tandem with world imperialist powers.
The de facto regime celebrated its repressive power in the patriotic festivities of September 15. The festivities reminded us of our infancy when we were forced to march in the parades. As children we were dressed in uniform and transformed into “infantry”. We gathered in the stadiums to be passive, tolerant listeners to the despot of the moment. These were like religious rites, football and military rituals, with their generals, captains, bishops, reverends and chaplains and somehow a bad imitation of the carnivals of New York or California.
The lead soldiers marched, the uniformed robots without their masks of crime, the tanks and the canons burned gun powder and shot false canon balls. The speeches were rusty and cheaply patriotic. They debuted manoeuvres in F5 planes, the parachute show of a parachute government.
The aerial noise did not scare the vultures that share the misery of the children living in the garbage, vultures that fly making fun of the war planes. It was a Neronian circus with forced students and teachers, beaten and threatened. The horses and the cavalry greeted with honors their great perfumed chiefs in ties. The popular protest could never be heard in a sports stadium empty of all popular warmth.
The National Resistance Against the Military Coup marched challenging the de facto government; rejecting the electoral farce, demanding the return to constitutional order and of president Zelaya. The popular clamor was for a Constitutional Assembly, The Second Independence, and the re-founding of the State of Honduras.
Recognition was expressed of the solidarity of all the peoples and governments, social movements, parties, ecclesiastical communities, women´s organizations, gay groups, human rights organizations, social communicators, worldwide fast, Vía Campesina, Friends of the Earth of Latin America and International Friends of the Earth.
On September 15th millions of Hondurans marched against the military political coup. The popular joy announced a dawning of justice. The hummingbirds jumped for joy and bathed in the dew of the ALBA and savored the nectar of the dreams of liberation. The march was the Biggest Embrace in History, with which the people, poets of liberty, have become poets for all the people of the world.
Tegucigalpa, September 15, 2009
the world feels the pain
I welcome the brave and honest effort of all the brothers and sisters of the world and the heroic struggle of the Honduran people in their resistance against the military coup. We have strong admiration and respect for each and every one of the comrades who expressed their solidarity, and for the international media.
Your generous presence and the genuine acts of solidarity of our fellow peoples and the courage of the honest journalists confront the situation of terror we live in. They have contributed to save lives and to expose the oppression of the multinational armed capital.
We are witnessing new war techniques and experiments of low intensity conflicts, physical and psychological torture and crimes against humanity. The Hunter of the Planet has put into practice the old scheme of the National Security Doctrine, and the military formed in the School of the Americas, the disciples of Pinochet and of the Argentine Military Junta.
The ideology is racist and is based on the Monroe doctrine and the Manifest Destiny with the 'face of peace and dialogue' promoted by the armored democracy with tanks, machine guns, rifles and ideological weapons of the media and the media church. Democracy of prayers. Begging God as they beat with the butt of their rifles. Prayers of the authorities of the Catholic and Evangelical church, who support the coup perpetrators, while the church of the poor, that of Monsignor Romero and of Father Guadalupe Carney suffer with the people.
The police is receiving military orders. They work closely with the oppressing class that is obedient to the Washington 'hawks', historical hunters of the Central American hummingbirds, they appear relentless and coward with their weapons. They have the mission to kill and violate human rights. They are the bodyguards of transnational corporations and of the oppressing class that lives in mansions and big estates while the people are starving, suffering misery and desolation.
We see with great pain on the Honduran television how the raging police, as if they were under the effect of drugs, beat up young people with no mercy after a football game as if their skulls were footballs. According to reports two young men were murdered and many people were injured. The outrageous scene tortures the people through media terrorism.
The coup perpetrators are blocking the water, food and medicine supplies to the demonstrators. They jail children, as if they had always been on war against them. They have been trained for a social cleansing of the poor. They threaten to beat up the residents of El Paraiso (neighboring town in the border between Honduras and Nicaragua) if they help their brothers or sisters.
The parasitic oligarchy and the bourgeoisie, which have nurtured from the State's monies are nervous because sectors of the national bourgeoisie, young police officers and some reservists, retired colonels of the Armed Forces, honest police officers, have publicly said they are rebelling against the military and the police brutality.
The moral and spiritual courage of the country's First Lady Mrs. Xiomara Castro, her mother and daughter, who have been marching with the people. They have been stripped of the freedom to mobilize in order to welcome the legitimate President of Honduras: Manuel Zelaya Rosales. The military coup turned the town of Paraiso into a huge prison of the “wretched of the earth”.
However, the Hondurans have a strong conviction and commitment that we will succeed in our liberation; because the people united with the ties of the planet's love is stronger and bigger than the army and the oppressing class of Honduras that is allied with the Washington hawks.
Tegucigalpa, July 26, 2009