In December 2022, in Montreal (Canada), 196 States pledged to take urgent action to halt and reverse biodiversity loss, signing the Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF). This marked a historic achievement for the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, but is the Framework really fit for purpose?

The answer is mixed. Certain elements and Targets may prove effective in ensuring the rights of communities are respected while ensuring protections for ecosystems and biodiversity. On the other hand, other elements have opened up the door for further corporate coopting, human rights violations and greenwashing, posing a threat to the same things the GBF is intended to protect. 

In this analysis, we break down the good, the bad, the missing and even our mixed feelings on the GBF and its targets. These factsheets also provide an accessible guide on how to make use of elements of the GBF to win battles at the national and local level across four key takeaways from the Framework including human rights and the rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities as being central to the protection and conservation of nature and biodiversity globally, regulations on transnational corporations, industrial agriculture and the ongoing threat posed by the agribusiness and biotech industries, and the conservation of ecosystems and species.

Download the individual factsheets or the complete set on this page to learn more.